NASA Logo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Goddard Space Flight Center

ALT

Fire Energetics and Emissions Research

FEER Updates

RSS

01.Feb.2017 - Updated getMODFIREdata and getFEERdata scripts.

14.Dec.2016 - Biomass burning land cover product description uploaded.

10.Nov.2016 - Expanded and enhanced the Northern Sub-Saharan Africa Project homepage.

13.Oct.2016 - Global MODIS Fires Google Earth product restored and enhanced.

Interactions and Feedbacks between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

Biomass Burning in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa
Project Highlights Project wiki (for collaborators only!)

Purpose

This IDS-2013 successor project aims to reinforce and amplify the preceding IDS-2009 interdisciplinary study by incorporating the potential impacts of similar environmental phenomena and processes in the adjoining Northern and Southern Africa as well as the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on the water cycle dynamics in the NSSA region. Our team is well constituted, with scientists from different but complementary areas of expertise, including biomass burning and surface characterization, aerosols and atmospheric modeling, cloud processes and precipitation, surface hydrology, ground-water hydrology, and climate modeling. Most of these scientists have substantial experience working in the NSSA region. This research is strategically designed to encompass in depth and breadth the different disciplines relevant to the subject matter, with dynamic linkages throughout the research period, in order to obtain a comprehensive result that relates the scientific outcome to societal impacts, as well as future projections of these. This is needed to formulate mitigation options to avert the looming regional/global catastrophic outcome of a potentially irreversible 'takeover' of that region by drought/desertification, exemplified by the drying up of Lake Chad and other water resources.

Team Members

Charles Ichoku, Ph.D

Principle Investigator
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Jimmy Adegoke, Ph.D

University of Missouri, Kansas City (UMKC)
Kansas City, MO

John Bolten, Ph.D

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Richard Damoah, Ph.D

USRA, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Amin Dezfuli, Ph.D

USRA, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Charles Gatebe, Ph.D

USRA/GESTAR, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Shahid Habib, Ph.D

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Jejung Lee, Ph.D

University of Missouri, Kansas City (UMKC)
Kansas City, MO

Toshihisa Matsui, Ph.D

ESSIC/UMCP, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Churchill Okonkwo, Ph.D

Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation
Atmospheric Science Program, Howard University
Washington, DC

Fritz Policelli, Ph.D candidate

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD

Jun Wang, Ph.D

University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE

Eric Wilcox, Ph.D

Desert Research Institute of the Nevada System of Higher Education
Reno, NV

Research Objectives

Energy Cycle (Ichoku, Gatebe, Wang)

To what extent does the seasonal biomass burning affect land-cover and ecosystem changes, surface albedo, smoke and dust emissions, atmospheric heating rates, and the consequent radiative forcing in the NSSA region?

Water Cycle (Lee, Bolten, Policelli, Wilcox)

How do these surface and atmospheric changes affect rainfall variability, soil moisture content and retention, surface runoff, infiltration, and the groundwater mass balance, particularly in the Lake Chad basin and surrounding regions?

Interactions and Feedbacks (Wilcox, Matsui, Wang, Damoah)

What are the relative magnitudes and spatial distributions of the various forcing and feedback effects that link the different phenomena both within the NSSA region and the adjoining regions?

Climate and Society (Adegoke, Engelbrecht, Ichoku, Okonkwo)

How will the NSSA regional climate and ecosystem balance be affected by the current degradation trend due to biomass burning, and how can this be mitigated to enhance societal benefits both in the present and the future?

Ground-Truthing and Field Verification (Lee, Adegoke, Bolten, Goni, Ichoku)

For atmospheric processes, airborne measurements from past field campaigns, such as AMMA/NAMMA, SAFARI-2000, and continuous measurements from AERONET and other ground-based monitoring stations will be used. However, for accurate parameterization and verification of the ground-based processes, a strategic field survey will be conducted in the vicinity of Lake Chad throughout the 3-year period of the proposed research, in collaboration with our partners at LCBC in Chad and University of Maiduguri (UMaid) in Nigeria.

End-User Engagement and Result Implementation (Habib, Ichoku, Adegoke)

To further pursue engagements with both national and regional agencies, including the Chad Basin Development Authority (CBDA) and the river basin authorities of the rivers that feed into Lake Chad, and to enlarge its scope, because it is anticipated that our results could be beneficial in a variety of ways to various regional and international organizations with interest in the NSSA region, such as the LCBC for water resources management, the UNDP for planning strategies and setting their development support priorities, and the IPCC for use in future climate assessments. Also, we will actualize collaboration with Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) to leverage the SERVIR-Africa infrastructure and their regional knowledge for dissemination of valuable results to applications communities with training options for sustainable implementation of positive solutions.





Publications

Ichoku, C., Ellison, L. T., Willmot, K. E., Matsui, T., Dezfuli, A. K., Gatebe, C. K., … Habib, S. (2016). Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 11(9), 95005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095005

Engelbrecht, F., Adegoke, J., Bopape, M.-J., Naidoo, M., Garland, R., Thatcher, M., … Gatebe, C. (2015). Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8), 85004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085004

Gatebe, C. K., Ichoku, C. M., Poudyal, R., Román, M. O., and Wilcox, E. (2014). Surface albedo darkening from wildfires in northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 9(6), 65003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/065003

Hosseinpour, F., and Wilcox, E. M. (2014). Aerosol interactions with African/Atlantic climate dynamics. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075004

Ichoku, C., and Ellison, L. (2014). Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(13), 6643–6667. doi:10.5194/acp-14-6643-2014

Long, S., Fatoyinbo, T. E., and Policelli, F. (2014). Flood extent mapping for Namibia using change detection and thresholding with SAR. Environmental Research Letters, 9(3), 35002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/035002

Okonkwo, C., and Demoz, B. (2014). Identifying anthropogenic “hotspots” and management of water resources in Lake Chad Basin using GIS. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(2–3), 135–149. doi:10.1080/19390459.2014.920581

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Gebremariam, S. (2014). Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/145893

Skaskevych, A. (2014). A Comparison Study of GRACE-Based Groundwater Modeling for Data-Rich and Data-Scarce Regions. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Zhang, F., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E. J., Yang, Z., Ge, C., … da Silva, A. (2014). Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075002

Babama’aji, R. A., and Lee, J. (2013). Land use/land cover classification of the vicinity of Lake Chad using NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat data. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(10), 4309–4317. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2825-x

Babama’aji, R. A. (2013). Impacts of Precipitation, Land Use Land Cover and Soil Type on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Onyeukwu, K. (2013). Characteristics of drought indices and rainfall in Lake Chad Basin. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(22), 7945–7961. doi:10.1080/01431161.2013.827813

Park, C., Lee, J., and Koo, M. H. (2013). Development of a fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model addressing vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics (VELAS). Journal of Hydrology, 493, 43–56. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.04.027

Yang, Z. (2013). Mesoscale Modeling and Satellite Observation of Transport and Mixing of Smoke and Dust Particles over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region. University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Yang, Z., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E., and Zeng, J. (2013). Mesoscale modeling and satellite observation of transport and mixing of smoke and dust particles over northern sub-Saharan African region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(21), 12139–12157. doi:10.1002/2013JD020644

Idowu, O. S. (2012). The role of land-atmosphere and aerosol interactions on meso-scale convective weather systems across West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Park, C. (2012). VELAS: A fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model with emphasis on vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Tobar, I. M. (2012). Geostatistical analysis of land use/land cover changes and population growth trends in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Aligeti, N. (2011). Satellite-based assessment of invasive vegetation in Lake Chad Basin, West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City.


References

Gatebe, C. K., and King, M. D. (2016). Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications. Remote Sensing of Environment, 179, 131–148. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029

Giglio, L., Schroeder, W., and Justice, C. O. (2016). The collection 6 MODIS active fire detection algorithm and fire products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 178, 31–41. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.054

Good, P., Harper, A., Meesters, A., Robertson, E., and Betts, R. (2016). Are strong fire–vegetation feedbacks needed to explain the spatial distribution of tropical tree cover? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(1), 16–25. doi:10.1111/geb.12380

Roy, D. P., and Kumar, S. S. (2016). Multi-year MODIS active fire type classification over the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome. International Journal of Digital Earth, 1–31. doi:10.1080/17538947.2016.1208686

Pereira, J. M. C., Oom, D., Pereira, P., Turkman, A. A., and Turkman, K. F. (2015). Religious Affiliation Modulates Weekly Cycles of Cropland Burning in Sub-Saharan Africa. (P. Anglewicz, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0139189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139189

Tosca, M. G., Diner, D. J., Garay, M. J., and Kalashnikova, O. V. (2015). Human-caused fires limit convection in tropical Africa: First temporal observations and attribution. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(15), 6492–6501. doi:10.1002/2015GL065063

Andela, N., and van der Werf, G. R. (2014). Recent trends in African fires driven by cropland expansion and El Niño to La Niña transition. Nature Climate Change, 4(9), 791–795. doi:10.1038/nclimate2313

Estes, L. D., Chaney, N. W., Herrera-Estrada, J., Sheffield, J., Caylor, K. K., and Wood, E. F. (2014). Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979–2010. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075005

Ge, C., Wang, J., and Reid, J. S. (2014). Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian maritime continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 159–174. doi:10.5194/acp-14-159-2014

Liousse, C., Assamoi, E., Criqui, P., Granier, C., and Rosset, R. (2014). Explosive growth in African combustion emissions from 2005 to 2030. Environmental Research Letters, 9(3), 35003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/035003

Livingston, J. M., Redemann, J., Shinozuka, Y., Johnson, R., Russell, P. B., Zhang, Q., … Ramachandran, S. (2014). Comparison of MODIS 3 km and 10 km resolution aerosol optical depth retrievals over land with airborne sunphotometer measurements during ARCTAS summer 2008. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 2015–2038. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2015-2014

Schroeder, W., Ellicott, E., Ichoku, C., Ellison, L., Dickinson, M. B., Ottmar, R. D., … Kremens, R. (2014). Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 719–730. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.10.010

Tosca, M. G., Diner, D. J., Garay, M. J., and Kalashnikova, O. V. (2014). Observational evidence of fire-driven reduction of cloud fraction in tropical Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119. doi:10.1002/2014JD021759

Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., … Zender, C. S. (2013). Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(11), 5380–5552. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171

Carslaw, K. S., Lee, L. A., Reddington, C. L., Pringle, K. J., Rap, A., Forster, P. M., … Pierce, J. R. (2013). Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing. Nature, 503, 67–71. doi:10.1038/nature12674

Diaz, M., and Aiyyer, A. (2013). Energy Dispersion in African Easterly Waves. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(1), 130–145. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-019.1

Giglio, L. (2013). MODIS Collection 5 Active Fire Product User’s Guide (2.5.).

Nelson, D., Garay, M., Kahn, R., and Dunst, B. (2013). Stereoscopic Height and Wind Retrievals for Aerosol Plumes with the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX). Remote Sensing, 5(9), 4593–4628. doi:10.3390/rs5094593

Smith, M. D., van Wilgen, B. W., Burns, C. E., Govender, N., Potgieter, A. L. F., Andelman, S., … Trollope, W. S. W. (2013). Long-term effects of fire frequency and season on herbaceous vegetation in savannas of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Plant Ecology, 6(1), 71–83. doi:10.1093/jpe/rts014

Spyrou, C., Kallos, G., Mitsakou, C., Athanasiadis, P., Kalogeri, C., and Iacono, M. J. (2013). Modeling the radiative effects of desert dust on weather and regional climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 5489–5504. doi:10.5194/acp-13-5489-2013

Stier, P., Schutgens, N. A. J., Bellouin, N., Bian, H., Boucher, O., Chin, M., … Zhou, C. (2013). Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 3245–3270. doi:10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013

Wang, J., Ge, C., Yang, Z., Hyer, E. J., Reid, J. S., Chew, B. N., … Zhang, M. (2013). Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography. Atmospheric Research, 122, 486–503. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.05.009

Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Bréon, F. M., Ciais, P., Davis, S., Erickson, D., … Treanton, K. (2012). A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences, 9, 1845–1871. doi:10.5194/bg-9-1845-2012

Beilfuss, R. (2012). A Risky Climate for Southern African Hydro: Assessing hydrological risks and consequences for Zambezi River Basin dams. Berkeley, CA, USA: International Rivers.

Diehl, T., Heil, A., Chin, M., Pan, X., Streets, D., Schultz, M., and Kinne, S. (2012). Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 12, 24895–24954. doi:10.5194/acpd-12-24895-2012

Fu, J. S., Hsu, N. C., Gao, Y., Huang, K., Li, C., Lin, N. H., and Tsay, S. C. (2012). Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: A regional chemical transport modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 3837–3855. doi:10.5194/acp-12-3837-2012

Hsu, N. C., Gautam, R., Sayer, A. M., Bettenhausen, C., Li, C., Jeong, M. J., … Holben, B. N. (2012). Global and regional trends of aerosol optical depth over land and ocean using SeaWiFS measurements from 1997 to 2010. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 8037–8053. doi:10.5194/acp-12-8037-2012

Hyer, E., Wang, J., and Arellano, A. (2012). Biomass Burning: Observations, Modeling, and Data Assimilation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(1), ES10-ES14. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00064.1

Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., and Chin, M. (2012). Satellite contributions to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning for climate modeling. Atmospheric Research, 111, 1–28. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.03.007

Kaiser, J. W., Heil, A., Andreae, M. O., Benedetti, A., Chubarova, N., Jones, L., … van der Werf, G. R. (2012). Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power. Biogeosciences, 9(1), 527–554. doi:10.5194/bg-9-527-2012

Lemoalle, J., Bader, J. C., Leblanc, M., and Sedick, A. (2012). Recent changes in Lake Chad: Observations, simulations and management options (1973-2011). Global and Planetary Change, 80–81, 247–254. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.004

Losada, T., Rodriguez-Fonseca, B., Mohino, E., Bader, J., Janicot, S., and Mechoso, C. R. (2012). Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A non-stationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(12). doi:10.1029/2012GL052423

Ma, P.-L., Zhang, K., Shi, J. J., Matsui, T., and Arking, A. (2012). Direct radiative effect of mineral dust on the development of African easterly waves in late summer, 2003-07. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(12), 2090–2104. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0215.1

Mason, D. C., Davenport, I. J., Neal, J. C., Schumann, G. J.-P., and Bates, P. D. (2012). Near Real-Time Flood Detection in Urban and Rural Areas Using High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(8), 3041–3052. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2178030

Peterson, D. (2012). Retrieval of Sub-Pixel-Based Fire Intensity and its Application for Characterizing Smoke Injection Heights and Fire Weather in North America. University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Solmon, F., Elguindi, N., and Mallet, M. (2012). Radiative and climatic effects of dust over West Africa, as simulated by a regional climate model. Climate Research, 52, 97–113. doi:10.3354/cr01039

Tyner, B., and Aiyyer, A. (2012). Evolution of African Easterly Waves in Potential Vorticity Fields. Monthly Weather Review, 140(11), 3634–3652. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00170.1

Val Martin, M., Kahn, R. a., Logan, J. a., Paugam, R., Wooster, M., and Ichoku, C. (2012). Space-based observational constraints for 1-D fire smoke plume-rise models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(D22), D22204. doi:10.1029/2012JD018370

Wilcox, E. M. (2012). Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 139–149. doi:10.5194/acp-12-139-2012

Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., Ram, J., Schmidt, C., and Huang, H.-C. (2012). Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(D14), D14201. doi:10.1029/2012JD017459

Zuluaga, M. D., Webster, P. J., and Hoyos, C. D. (2012). Variability of aerosols in the tropical Atlantic Ocean relative to African Easterly Waves and their relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D16). doi:10.1029/2011JD017181

Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., … Wennberg, P. O. (2011). Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(9), 4039–4072. doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011

Fontaine, B., Roucou, P., Gaetani, M., and Marteau, R. (2011). Recent changes in precipitation, ITCZ convection and northern tropical circulation over North Africa (1979-2007). International Journal of Climatology, 31(5), 633–648. doi:10.1002/joc.2108

Gao, H., Bohn, T. J., Podest, E., McDonald, K. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P. (2011). On the causes of the shrinking of Lake Chad. Environmental Research Letters, 6(3). doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034021

Leblanc, M., Lemoalle, J., Bader, J.-C., Tweed, S., and Mofor, L. (2011). Thermal remote sensing of water under flooded vegetation: New observations of inundation patterns for the “Small” Lake Chad. Journal of Hydrology, 404(1–2), 87–98. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.04.023

Matgen, P., Hostache, R., Schumann, G., Pfister, L., Hoffmann, L., and Savenije, H. H. G. (2011). Towards an automated SAR-based flood monitoring system: Lessons learned from two case studies. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36(7–8), 241–252. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.12.009

Ming, Y., and Ramaswamy, V. (2011). A Model Investigation of Aerosol-Induced Changes in Tropical Circulation. Journal of Climate, 24(19), 5125–5133. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4108.1

Polo, I., Ullmann, A., Roucou, P., and Fontaine, B. (2011). Weather Regimes in the Euro-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sector, and Relationship with West African Rainfall over the 1989–2008 Period from a Self-Organizing Maps Approach. Journal of Climate, 24(13), 3423–3432. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3622.1

Reale, O., Lau, K. M., and da Silva, A. (2011). Impact of Interactive Aerosol on the African Easterly Jet in the NASA GEOS-5 Global Forecasting System. Weather and Forecasting, 26(4), 504–519. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-10-05025.1

Rienecker, M. M., Suarez, M. J., Gelaro, R., Todling, R., Bacmeister, J., Liu, E., … Woollen, J. (2011). MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. Journal of Climate, 24(14), 3624–3648. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1

Roberts, G., Wooster, M. J., Freeborn, P. H., and Xu, W. (2011). Integration of geostationary FRP and polar-orbiter burned area datasets for an enhanced biomass burning inventory. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(8), 2047–2061. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.006

Román, M. O., Gatebe, C. K., Schaaf, C. B., Poudyal, R., Wang, Z., and King, M. D. (2011). Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30m-500m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(9), 2184–2203. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.012

Sakaeda, N., Wood, R., and Rasch, P. J. (2011). Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(D12), D12205. doi:10.1029/2010JD015540

Schumann, G. J.-P., Neal, J. C., Mason, D. C., and Bates, P. D. (2011). The accuracy of sequential aerial photography and SAR data for observing urban flood dynamics, a case study of the UK summer 2007 floods. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(10), 2536–2546. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.039

Urbanski, S. P., Hao, W. M., and Nordgren, B. (2011). The wildland fire emission inventory: Western United States emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 12973–13000. doi:10.5194/acp-11-12973-2011

van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R. V., Levy, R. C., da Silva, A. M., Krzyzanowski, M., Chubarova, N. E., … Cohen, A. J. (2011). Satellite-based estimates of ground-level fine particulate matter during extreme events: A case study of the Moscow fires in 2010. Atmospheric Environment, 45(34), 6225–6232. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.068

Wiedinmyer, C., Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Emmons, L. K., Al-Saadi, J. a., Orlando, J. J., and Soja, a. J. (2011). The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning. Geoscientific Model Development, 4(3), 625–641. doi:10.5194/gmd-4-625-2011

Williams, A. P., and Funk, C. (2011). A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa. Climate Dynamics, 37(11–12), 2417–2435. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0984-y

Yokelson, R. J., Burling, I. R., Urbanski, S. P., Atlas, E. L., Adachi, K., Buseck, P. R., … Wold, C. E. (2011). Trace gas and particle emissions from open biomass burning in Mexico. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 6787–6808. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6787-2011

Yurganov, L. N., Rakitin, V., Dzhola, A., August, T., Fokeeva, E., George, M., … Strow, L. (2011). Satellite- and ground-based CO total column observations over 2010 Russian fires: Accuracy of top-down estimates based on thermal IR satellite data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 7925–7942. doi:10.5194/acp-11-7925-2011

Caminade, C., and Terray, L. (2010). Twentieth century Sahel rainfall variability as simulated by the ARPEGE AGCM, and future changes. Climate Dynamics, 35(1), 75–94. doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0545-4

Geerken, R., Vassolo, S., and Bila, M. (2010). Impacts of climate variability and population pressure on water resources in the Lake Chad Basin. In Conference of the Global Catchment Initiative (pp. 27–33).

Henderson, S. B., Ichoku, C., Burkholder, B. J., Brauer, M., and Jackson, P. L. (2010). The validity and utility of MODIS data for simple estimation of area burned and aerosols emitted by wildfire events. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 19(7), 844. doi:10.1071/WF09027

Jury, M. R., and Santiago, M. J. (2010). Composite analysis of dust impacts on African easterly waves in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer era. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D16). doi:10.1029/2009JD013612

Kim, K. M., Lau, W. K.-M., Sud, Y. C., and Walker, G. K. (2010). Influence of aerosol-radiative forcings on the diurnal and seasonal cycles of rainfall over West Africa and Eastern Atlantic Ocean using GCM simulations. Climate Dynamics, 35(1), 115–126. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0750-1

Labat, D. (2010). Cross wavelet analyses of annual continental freshwater discharge and selected climate indices. Journal of Hydrology, 385(1–4), 269–278. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.02.029

Levy, R. C., Remer, L. a., Kleidman, R. G., Mattoo, S., Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., and Eck, T. F. (2010). Global evaluation of the Collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(21), 10399–10420. doi:10.5194/acp-10-10399-2010

Liousse, C., Guillaume, B., Grégoire, J. M., Mallet, M., Galy, C., Pont, V., … Van Velthoven, P. (2010). Updated African biomass burning emission inventories in the framework of the AMMA-IDAF program, with an evaluation of combustion aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(19), 9631–9646. doi:10.5194/acp-10-9631-2010

Oursingbé, M., and Zhonghua, T. (2010). Recharge of the Quaternary Aquifer of Lake Chad Basin Estimated from Oxygen-18 (18O) and Tritium (3H) Isotopes. Journal of American Science, 6(9), 283–292.

Randles, C. A., and Ramaswamy, V. (2010). Direct and semi-direct impacts of absorbing biomass burning aerosol on the climate of southern Africa: A Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM sensitivity study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 9819–9831. doi:10.5194/acp-10-9819-2010

van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Mu, M., Kasibhatla, P. S., … van Leeuwen, T. T. (2010). Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(23), 11707–11735. doi:10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010

Wilcox, E. M., Lau, K. M., and Kim, K. M. (2010). A northward shift of the North Atlantic Ocean Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to summertime Saharan dust outbreaks. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(4). doi:10.1029/2009GL041774

Xu, W., Wooster, M. J., Roberts, G., and Freeborn, P. (2010). New GOES imager algorithms for cloud and active fire detection and fire radiative power assessment across North, South and Central America. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(9), 1876–1895. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2010.03.012

Cornforth, R. J., Hoskins, B. J., and Thorncroft, C. D. (2009). The impact of moist processes on the African easterly jet–African easterly wave system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal …, 135(641), 894–913. doi:10.1002/qj.414

Küçük, M., Kahya, E., Cengiz, T. M., and Karaca, M. (2009). North Atlantic Oscillation influences on Turkish lake levels. Hydrological Processes, 23(6), 893–906. doi:10.1002/hyp.7225

Langmann, B., Duncan, B., Textor, C., Trentmann, J., and van der Werf, G. R. (2009). Vegetation fire emissions and their impact on air pollution and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 43(1), 107–116. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.047

Lau, K. M., Kim, K. M., Sud, Y. C., and Walker, G. K. (2009). A GCM study of the response of the atmospheric water cycle of West Africa and the Atlantic to Saharan dust radiative forcing. Annales Geophysicae, 27(10), 4023–4037. doi:10.5194/angeo-27-4023-2009

Martinis, S., Twele, A., and Voigt, S. (2009). Towards operational near real-time flood detection using a split-based automatic thresholding procedure on high resolution TerraSAR-X data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 303–314. doi:10.5194/nhess-9-303-2009

Nicholson, S. E. (2009). A revised picture of the structure of the “monsoon” and land ITCZ over West Africa. Climate Dynamics, 32(7–8), 1155–1171. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0514-3

Reid, J. S., Hyer, E. J., Prins, E. M., Westphal, D. L., Zhang, J., Wang, J., … Hoffman, J. P. (2009). Global Monitoring and Forecasting of Biomass-Burning Smoke: Description of and Lessons From the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) Program. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2(3), 144–162. doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2027443

Sofiev, M., Vankevich, R., Lotjonen, M., Prank, M., Petukhov, V., Ermakova, T., … Kukkonen, J. (2009). An operational system for the assimilation of satellite information on wild-land fires for the needs of air quality modelling and forecasting. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9, 6483–6513. doi:10.5194/acpd-9-6483-2009

Vermote, E., Ellicott, E., Dubovik, O., Lapyonok, T., Chin, M., Giglio, L., and Roberts, G. J. (2009). An approach to estimate global biomass burning emissions of organic and black carbon from MODIS fire radiative power. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114(D18), D18205. doi:10.1029/2008JD011188

Boronina, A., and Ramillien, G. (2008). Application of AVHRR imagery and GRACE measurements for calculation of actual evapotranspiration over the Quaternary aquifer (Lake Chad basin) and validation of groundwater models. Journal of Hydrology, 348(1–2), 98–109. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.09.061

Cook, K. H. (2008). Climate science: The mysteries of Sahel droughts. Nature Geoscience, 1, 647–648. doi:10.1038/ngeo320

Dunion, J. P., and Marron, C. S. (2008). A Reexamination of the Jordan Mean Tropical Sounding Based on Awareness of the Saharan Air Layer: Results from 2002. Journal of Climate, 21(20), 5242–5253. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI1868.1

Freeborn, P. H., Wooster, M. J., Hao, W. M., Ryan, C. a., Nordgren, B. L., Baker, S. P., and Ichoku, C. (2008). Relationships between energy release, fuel mass loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratory biomass fires. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(D1), D01301. doi:10.1029/2007JD008679

Furley, P. A., Rees, R. M., Ryan, C. M., and Saiz, G. (2008). Savanna burning and the assessment of long-term fire experiments with particular reference to Zimbabwe. Progress in Physical Geography, 32(6), 611–634. doi:10.1177/0309133308101383

Gao, F., Morisette, J. T., Wolfe, R. E., Ederer, G., Pedelty, J., Masuoka, E., … Nightingale, J. (2008). An algorithm to produce temporally and spatially continuous MODIS-LAI time series. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 5(1), 60–64. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2007.907971

Giannini, A., Biasutti, M., and Verstraete, M. M. (2008). A climate model-based review of drought in the Sahel: Desertification, the re-greening and climate change. Global and Planetary Change, 64(3–4), 119–128. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.05.004

Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., Restás, Á., Morisette, J. T., Schroeder, W., Morton, D., and Justice, C. O. (2008). Active fire detection and characterization with the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER). Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(6), 3055–3063. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.03.003

Govaerts, Y., and Lattanzio, A. (2008). Estimation of surface albedo increase during the eighties Sahel drought from Meteosat observations. Global and Planetary Change, 64(3–4), 139–145. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.04.004

Hagos, S. M., and Cook, K. H. (2008). Ocean Warming and Late-Twentieth-Century Sahel Drought and Recovery. Journal of Climate, 21(15), 3797–3814. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2055.1

Henderson, S. B., Burkholder, B., Jackson, P. L., Brauer, M., and Ichoku, C. (2008). Use of MODIS products to simplify and evaluate a forest fire plume dispersion model for PM10 exposure assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 42(36), 8524–8532. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.008

Ichoku, C., Giglio, L., Wooster, M. J., and Remer, L. A. (2008). Global characterization of biomass-burning patterns using satellite measurements of fire radiative energy. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(6), 2950–2962. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.02.009

Ichoku, C., Martins, J. V., Kaufman, Y. J., Wooster, M. J., Freeborn, P. H., Hao, W. M., … Nordgren, B. L. (2008). Laboratory investigation of fire radiative energy and smoke aerosol emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(D14), D14S09. doi:10.1029/2007JD009659

Johnson, B. T., Heese, B., McFarlane, S. a., Chazette, P., Jones, A., and Bellouin, N. (2008). Vertical distribution and radiative effects of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D00C12. doi:10.1029/2008JD009848

Johnson, B. T., Osborne, S. R., Haywood, J. M., and Harrison, M. A. J. (2008). Aircraft measurements of biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D23). doi:10.1029/2007JD009451

Jordan, N. S., Ichoku, C., and Hoff, R. M. (2008). Estimating smoke emissions over the US Southern Great Plains using MODIS fire radiative power and aerosol observations. Atmospheric Environment, 42(9), 2007–2022. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.023

Konare, A., Zakey, A. S., Solmon, F., Giorgi, F., Rauscher, S., Ibrah, S., and Bi, X. (2008). A regional climate modeling study of the effect of desert dust on the West African monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(D12). doi:10.1029/2007JD009322

Kussul, N., Shelestov, A., and Skakun, S. (2008). Grid system for flood extent extraction from satellite images. Earth Science Informatics, 1(3–4), 105–117. doi:10.1007/s12145-008-0014-3

Moore, A. E., Cotterill, F. P. D. (Woody), Main, M. P. L., and Williams, H. B. (2008). The Zambezi River. In Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management (pp. 311–332). doi:10.1002/9780470723722.ch15

Nelson, D. L., Chen, Y., Kahn, R. A., Diner, D. J., and Mazzoni, D. (2008). Example applications of the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) software tool to wildfire smoke plume analyses. In W. M. Hao (Ed.), Proc. SPIE 7089, Remote Sensing of Fire: Science and Application (p. 708909). doi:10.1117/12.795087

Remer, L. A., Kleidman, R. G., Levy, R. C., Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., Mattoo, S., … Holben, B. N. (2008). Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D14). doi:10.1029/2007JD009661

Roberts, G. J., and Wooster, M. J. (2008). Fire Detection and Fire Characterization Over Africa Using Meteosat SEVIRI. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 46(4), 1200–1218. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.915751

Sander, N., and Jones, S. C. (2008). Diagnostic measures for assessing numerical forecasts of African Easterly Waves. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 17(2), 209–220. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2008/0269

Schroeder, W., Ruminski, M., Csiszar, I., Giglio, L., Prins, E., Schmidt, C., and Morisette, J. (2008). Validation analyses of an operational fire monitoring product: The Hazard Mapping System. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(20), 6059–6066. doi:10.1080/01431160802235845

Schroeder, W., Prins, E., Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., Schmidt, C., Morisette, J., and Morton, D. (2008). Validation of GOES and MODIS active fire detection products using ASTER and ETM+ data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(5), 2711–2726. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.01.005

Schultz, M. G., Heil, A., Hoelzemann, J. J., Spessa, A., Thonicke, K., Goldammer, J. G., … van het Bolscher, M. (2008). Global wildland fire emissions from 1960 to 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22(2), 1–17. doi:10.1029/2007GB003031

Shao, G., and Wu, J. (2008). On the accuracy of landscape pattern analysis using remote sensing data. Landscape Ecology, 23(5), 505–511. doi:10.1007/s10980-008-9215-x

Thorncroft, C. D., Hall, N. M. J., and Kiladis, G. N. (2008). Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part III: Genesis. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65(11), 3596–3607. doi:10.1175/2008JAS2575.1

Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., Schmidt, C., and Kogan, F. (2008). Near real time monitoring of biomass burning particulate emissions (PM2.5) across contiguous United States using multiple satellite instruments. Atmospheric Environment, 42(29), 6959–6972. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.04.060

Bdliya, H. H., and Bloxom, M. (2007). Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis of the Lake Chad Basin.

Eriksen, C. (2007). Why do they burn the “bush”? Fire, rural livelihoods, and conservation in Zambia. The Geographical Journal, 173(3), 242–256. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2007.00239.x

Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R., Fahey, D. W., … van Dorland, R. (2007). Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In T. Nakajima and V. Ramanathan (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 129–234). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Generoso, S., Bey, I., Attié, J.-L., and Bréon, F.-M. (2007). A satellite- and model-based assessment of the 2003 Russian fires: Impact on the Arctic region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112(D15). doi:10.1029/2006JD008344

Giglio, L. (2007). Characterization of the tropical diurnal fire cycle using VIRS and MODIS observations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 108(4), 407–421. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.11.018

Huffman, G. J., Adler, R. F., Bolvin, D. T., Gu, G., Nelkin, E. J., Bowman, K. P., … Wolff, D. B. (2007). The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8(1), 38–55. doi:10.1175/JHM560.1

Inglacla, J., and Mercier, G. (2007). A New Statistical Similarity Measure for Change Detection in Multitemporal SAR Images and Its Extension to Multiscale Change Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 45(5), 1432–1445. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.893568

Joly, M., Voldoire, A., Douville, H., Terray, P., and Royer, J. F. (2007). African monsoon teleconnections with tropical SSTs: Validation and evolution in a set of IPCC4 simulations. Climate Dynamics, 29(1), 1–20. doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0215-8

Kahn, R. A., Li, W.-H., Moroney, C., Diner, D. J., Martonchik, J. V., and Fishbein, E. (2007). Aerosol source plume physical characteristics from space-based multiangle imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112(D11), D11205. doi:10.1029/2006JD007647

Langner, A., Miettinen, J., and Siegert, F. (2007). Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery. Global Change Biology, 13(11), 2329–2340. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01442.x

Li, K. Y., Coe, M. T., Ramankutty, N., and De Jong, R. (2007). Modeling the hydrological impact of land-use change in West Africa. Journal of Hydrology, 337(3–4), 258–268. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.01.038

Schumann, G., Hostache, R., Puech, C., Hoffmann, L., Matgen, P., Pappenberger, F., and Pfister, L. (2007). High-resolution 3-D flood information from radar imagery for flood hazard management. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 45(6), 1715–1725. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.888103

Biasutti, M., and Giannini, A. (2006). Robust Sahel drying in response to late 20th century forcings. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11), L11706. doi:10.1029/2006GL026067

Fast, J. D., Gustafson, W. I., Easter, R. C., Zaveri, R. A., Barnard, J. C., Chapman, E. G., … Peckham, S. E. (2006). Evolution of ozone, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D21). doi:10.1029/2005JD006721

Freitas, S. R., Longo, K. M., and Andreae, M. O. (2006). Impact of including the plume rise of vegetation fires in numerical simulations of associated atmospheric pollutants. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(17). doi:10.1029/2006GL026608

Görgen, K., Lynch, A. H., Marshall, A. G., and Beringer, J. (2006). Impact of abrupt land cover changes by savanna fire on northern Australian climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D19). doi:10.1029/2005JD006860

Hall, N. M. J., Kiladis, G. N., and Thorncroft, C. D. (2006). Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part II: Dynamical Modes. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 63(9), 2231–2245. doi:10.1175/JAS3742.1

Henry, J. ‐B., Chastanet, P., Fellah, K., and Desnos, Y. ‐L. (2006). Envisat multi‐polarized ASAR data for flood mapping. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(10), 1921–1929. doi:10.1080/01431160500486724

Kiladis, G. N., Thorncroft, C. D., and Hall, N. M. J. (2006). Three-Dimensional Structure and Dynamics of African Easterly Waves. Part I: Observations. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 63(9), 2231–2245. doi:10.1175/JAS3741.1

Mazvimavi, D., and Wolski, P. (2006). Long-term variations of annual flows of the Okavango and Zambezi Rivers. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31(15–16), 944–951. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2006.08.016

Randerson, J. T., Liu, H., Flanner, M. G., Chambers, S. D., Jin, Y., Hess, P. G., … Zender, C. S. (2006). The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1130–2. doi:10.1126/science.1132075

Salomon, J. G., Schaaf, C. B., Strahler, A. H., Gao, F., and Jin, Y. (2006). Validation of the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo Retrievals Using Combined Observations From the Aqua and Terra Platforms. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44(6), 1555–1564. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.871564

Textor, C., Schulz, M., Guibert, S., Kinne, S., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., … Tie, X. (2006). Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 1777–1813. doi:10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006

UNEP. (2006). People and Lakes: Human Influences on Africa’s Lakes. In Africa’s lakes: Atlas of our changing environment (pp. 6–19).

UNEP. (2006). Impacts on Africa’s Lakes: Case Studies of Africa’s Changing Lakes. In Africa’s lakes: Atlas of our changing environment (pp. 20–37).

van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Kasibhatla, P. S., and Arellano, a. F. (2006). Interannual variability of global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 6(2), 3175–3226. doi:10.5194/acpd-6-3175-2006

Wang, J., and Christopher, S. A. (2006). Mesoscale modeling of Central American smoke transport to the United States: 2. Smoke radiative impact on regional surface energy budget and boundary layer evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 111(D14). doi:10.1029/2005JD006720

Adeel, Z., Safriel, U., Niemeijer, D., White, R., de Kalbermatten, G., Glantz, M., … Yapi-Gnaore, V. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Desertification Synthesis. (J. Sarukhán, A. Whyte, and MA Board of Review Editors, Eds.). Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

Deshmukh, K. S., and Shinde, G. N. (2005). An Adaptive Color Image Segmentation. Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis, 5(4), 12–23. doi:10.5565/rev/elcvia.115

Feingold, G., Jiang, H., and Harrington, J. Y. (2005). On smoke suppression of clouds in Amazonia. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(2). doi:10.1029/2004GL021369

Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W. C., and Eder, B. (2005). Fully coupled “online” chemistry within the WRF model. Atmospheric Environment, 39(37), 6957–6975. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.027

Held, I. M., Delworth, T. L., Lu, J., Findell, K. L., and Knutson, T. R. (2005). Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(50), 17891–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0509057102

Hsieh, J.-S., and Cook, K. H. (2005). Generation of African Easterly Wave Disturbances: Relationship to the African Easterly Jet. Monthly Weather Review, 133(5), 1311–1327. doi:10.1175/MWR2916.1

Hwang, C., Peng, M.-F., Ning, J., Luo, J., and Sui, C.-H. (2005). Lake level variations in China from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry: data quality assessment and links to precipitation and ENSO. Geophysical Journal International, 161(1), 1–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02518.x

Ichoku, C. (2005). Quantitative evaluation and intercomparison of morning and afternoon Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol measurements from Terra and Aqua. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), D10S03. doi:10.1029/2004JD004987

Ichoku, C., and Kaufman, Y. J. (2005). A method to derive smoke emission rates from MODIS fire radiative energy measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43(11), 2636–2649. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.857328

Jenkins, G. S., Gaye, A. T., and Sylla, B. (2005). Late 20th century attribution of drying trends in the Sahel from the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). Geophysical Research Letters, 32(22). doi:10.1029/2005GL024225

Jin, Y., and Roy, D. P. (2005). Fire-induced albedo change and its radiative forcing at the surface in northern Australia. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(13). doi:10.1029/2005GL022822

Kaufman, Y. J. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), D10S12. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436

Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. a, Rosenfeld, D., and Rudich, Y. (2005). The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(32), 11207–12. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505191102

Laris, P. S. (2005). Spatiotemporal problems with detecting and mapping mosaic fire regimes with coarse-resolution satellite data in savanna environments. Remote Sensing of Environment, 99(4), 412–424. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2005.09.012

Michel, C., Liousse, C., Grégoire, J.-M., Tansey, K., Carmichael, G. R., and Woo, J.-H. (2005). Biomass burning emission inventory from burnt area data given by the SPOT-VEGETATION system in the frame of TRACE-P and ACE-Asia campaigns. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D9). doi:10.1029/2004JD005461

Morisette, J. T., Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., and Justice, C. O. (2005). Validation of the MODIS active fire product over Southern Africa with ASTER data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(19), 4239–4264. doi:10.1080/01431160500113526

Morisette, J. T., Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., Setzer, A., Schroeder, W., Morton, D., and Justice, C. O. (2005). Validation of MODIS Active Fire Detection Products Derived from Two Algorithms. Earth Interactions, 9(9), 1–25. doi:10.1175/EI141.1

Reid, J. S., Eck, T. F., Christopher, S. a., Koppmann, R., Dubovik, O., Eleuterio, D. P., … Zhang, J. (2005). A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5(3), 827–849. doi:10.5194/acp-5-827-2005

Remer, L. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré, D., Mattoo, S., Chu, D. A., Martins, J. V., … Holben, B. N. (2005). The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products, and Validation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 62(4), 947–973. doi:10.1175/JAS3385.1

Roberts, G. J., Wooster, M. J., Perry, G. L. W., Drake, N., Rebelo, L.-M., and Dipotso, F. (2005). Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: Application to southern Africa using geostationary SEVIRI imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D21), D21111. doi:10.1029/2005JD006018

Schroeder, W., Morisette, J. T., Csiszar, I., Giglio, L., Morton, D., and Justice, C. O. (2005). Characterizing Vegetation Fire Dynamics in Brazil through Multisatellite Data: Common Trends and Practical Issues. Earth Interactions, 9(13), 1–26. doi:10.1175/EI120.1

Wooster, M. J., Roberts, G., Perry, G. L. W., and Kaufman, Y. J. (2005). Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: FRP derivation and calibration relationships between biomass consumption and fire radiative energy release. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D24), D24311. doi:10.1029/2005JD006318

Coe, M. T., and Birkett, C. M. (2004). Calculation of river discharge and prediction of lake height from satellite radar altimetry: Example for the Lake Chad basin. Water Resources Research, 40(10). doi:10.1029/2003WR002543

Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., and Jevrejeva, S. (2004). Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 11, 561–566. doi:10.5194/npg-11-561-2004

Gu, G., Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., and Curtis, S. (2004). African easterly waves and their association with precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(D4). doi:10.1029/2003JD003967

Hoelzemann, J. J., Schultz, M. G., Brasseur, G. P., Granier, C., and Simon, M. (2004). Global Wildland Fire Emission Model (GWEM): Evaluating the use of global area burnt satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D14). doi:10.1029/2003JD003666

Ito, A., and Penner, J. E. (2004). Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D14). doi:10.1029/2003JD004423

Jones, C., Mahowald, N., and Luo, C. (2004). Observational evidence of African desert dust intensification of easterly waves. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(17). doi:10.1029/2004GL020107

Roundy, P. E., and Frank, W. M. (2004). A Climatology of Waves in the Equatorial Region. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 61(17), 2105–2132. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<2105:ACOWIT>2.0.CO;2

UNEP. (2004). Lake Chad Basin, GIWA Regional assessment 43. (M. Fortnam and J. Oguntola, Eds.). Kalmar, Sweden: University of Kalmar.

Adegoke, J. O., Pielke, R. A., Eastman, J., Mahmood, R., and Hubbard, K. G. (2003). Impact of Irrigation on Midsummer Surface Fluxes and Temperature under Dry Synoptic Conditions: A Regional Atmospheric Model Study of the U.S. High Plains. Monthly Weather Review, 131(3), 556–564. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0556:IOIOMS>2.0.CO;2

Eisenhauer, J. G. (2003). Regression through the Origin. Teaching Statistics, 25(3), 76–80. doi:10.1111/1467-9639.00136

Giannini, A., Saravanan, R., and Chang, P. (2003). Oceanic Forcing of Sahel Rainfall on Interannual to Interdecadal Time Scales. Science, 302(5647), 1027–1030. doi:10.1126/science.1089357

Giglio, L., Descloitres, J., Justice, C. O., and Kaufman, Y. J. (2003). An Enhanced Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 87(2–3), 273–282. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00184-6

Ichoku, C. (2003). MODIS observation of aerosols and estimation of aerosol radiative forcing over southern Africa during SAFARI 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D13), 8499. doi:10.1029/2002JD002366

Jones, C., Mahowald, N., and Luo, C. (2003). The Role of Easterly Waves on African Desert Dust Transport. Journal of Climate, 16(22), 3617–3628. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<3617:TROEWO>2.0.CO;2

Mahowald, N. M., and Kiehl, L. M. (2003). Mineral aerosol and cloud interactions. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(9). doi:10.1029/2002GL016762

Tarhule, A., and Lamb, P. J. (2003). Climate Research and Seasonal Forecasting for West Africans: Perceptions, Dissemination, and Use? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84(12), 1741–1759. doi:10.1175/BAMS-84-12-1741

Thorncroft, C. D., Parker, D. J., Burton, R. R., Diop, M., Ayers, J. H., Barjat, H., … Tompkins, A. M. (2003). The JET2000 Project: Aircraft Observations of the African Easterly Jet and African Easterly Waves. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84(3), 337–351. doi:10.1175/BAMS-84-3-337

Wooster, M. J. (2003). Fire radiative energy for quantitative study of biomass burning: derivation from the BIRD experimental satellite and comparison to MODIS fire products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86(1), 83–107. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00070-1

Chin, M., Ginoux, P., Kinne, S., Torres, O., Holben, B. N., Duncan, B. N., … Nakajima, T. (2002). Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 59(3), 461–483. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0461:TAOTFT>2.0.CO;2

Fuller, D. O., and Ottke, C. (2002). Land cover, rainfall and land-surface albedo in West Africa. Climatic Change, 54, 181–204. doi:10.1023/A:1015730900622

Gatebe, C. K., King, M. D., Platnick, S., Arnold, G. T., Vermote, E. F., and Schmid, B. (2002). Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 108(D13). doi:10.1029/2002JD002397

Govaerts, Y. M., Pereira, J. M., Pinty, B., and Mota, B. (2002). Impact of fires on surface albedo dynamics over the African continent. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 107(D22). doi:10.1029/2002JD002388

Justice, C. O., Giglio, L., Korontzi, S., Owens, J., Morisette, J. T., Roy, D., … Kaufman, Y. (2002). The MODIS fire products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83(1–2), 244–262. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00076-7

Mercier, F., Cazenave, A., and Maheu, C. (2002). Interannual lake level fluctuations (1993-1999) in Africa from Topex/Poseidon: connections with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the Indian Ocean. Global and Planetary Change, 32(2–3), 141–163. doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(01)00139-4

Schaaf, C. B., Gao, F., Strahler, A. H., Lucht, W., Li, X., Tsang, T., … Roy, D. (2002). Global albedo, BRDF and nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance products from MODIS. In IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Vol. 83, pp. 135–148). IEEE. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2002.1025877

Andreae, M. O., and Merlet, P. (2001). Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(4), 955–966. doi:10.1029/2000GB001382

Coe, M. T., and Foley, J. A. (2001). Human and natural impacts on the water resources of the Lake Chad basin. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D4), 3349. doi:10.1029/2000JD900587

Grist, J. P., and Nicholson, S. E. (2001). A Study of the Dynamic Factors Influencing the Rainfall Variability in the West African Sahel. Journal of Climate, 14(7), 1337–1359. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1337:ASOTDF>2.0.CO;2

Holben, B. N., Tanré, D., Smirnov, A., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Abuhassan, N., … Zibordi, G. (2001). An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D11), 12067–12097. doi:10.1029/2001JD900014

Horritt, M. S., Mason, D. C., and Luckman, A. J. (2001). Flood boundary delineation from Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery using a statistical active contour model. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(13), 2489–2507. doi:10.1080/01431160116902

Nicholson, S. E. (2001). Climatic and environmental change in Africa during the last two centuries. Climate Research, 17, 123–144. doi:10.3354/cr017123

Scepan, J., and Estes, J. E. (2001). Thematic Validation of Global Land Cover Data Sets – Procedures and Interpretation Methods. In IEEE 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings (Vol. 3, pp. 1119–1121). Sydney, NSW: IEEE. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2001.976765

Thorncroft, C., and Hodges, K. (2001). African Easterly Wave Variability and Its Relationship to Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity. Journal of Climate, 14(6), 1166–1179. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1166:AEWVAI>2.0.CO;2

Wisnowski, J. W., Montgomery, D. C., and Simpson, J. R. (2001). A Comparative analysis of multiple outlier detection procedures in the linear regression model. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 36(3), 351–382. doi:10.1016/S0167-9473(00)00042-6

Birkett, C. M. (2000). Synergistic Remote Sensing of Lake Chad: Variability of Basin Inundation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 72(2), 218–236. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00105-4

Lavoué, D., Liousse, C., Cachier, H., Stocks, B. J., and Goldammer, J. G. (2000). Modeling of carbonaceous particles emitted by boreal and temperate wildfires at northern latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(D22), 26871–26890. doi:10.1029/2000JD900180

Pinty, B., Verstraete, M. M., Gobron, N., Roveda, F., and Govaerts, Y. (2000). Do Man-Made Fires Affect Earth’s Surface Reflectance at Continental Scales? Eos, 81(34), 381–389. doi:10.1029/00EO00281

Barbosa, P. M., Stroppiana, D., Grégoire, J. M., and Pereira, J. M. C. (1999). An assessment of vegetation fire in Africa (1981-1991): Burned areas, burned biomass, and atmospheric emissions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13(4), 933–950. doi:10.1029/1999GB900042

Karyampudi, V. M., Palm, S. P., Reagen, J. A., Fang, H., Grant, W. B., Hoff, R. M., … Melfi, S. H. (1999). Validation of the Saharan dust plume conceptual model using lidar, Meteosat, and ECMWF data. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80(6), 1045–1075. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1045:VOTSDP>2.0.CO;2

Pytharoulis, I., and Thorncroft, C. (1999). The Low-Level Structure of African Easterly Waves in 1995. Monthly Weather Review, 127(10), 2266–2280. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<2266:TLLSOA>2.0.CO;2

Singh, A., Dieye, A. M., Finco, M., Chenoweth, M. S., Fosnight, E. A., and Allotey, A. (1999). Early Warning of Selected Emerging Environmental issues in Africa: Change and Correlation from a Geographic Perspective. Nairobi, Kenya.

Strahler, A., Muchoney, D., Borak, J., Friedl, M., Gopal, S., Lambin, E., and Moody, A. (1999). MODIS Land Cover Product Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD): MODIS Land Cover and Land-Cover Change (5.0.).

Ackermann, I. J., Hass, H., Memmesheimer, M., Ebel, A., Binkowski, F. S., and Shankar, U. (1998). Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe: Development and first applications. Atmospheric Environment, 32(17), 2981–2999. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00006-5

Chou, M.-D., Suarez, M. J., Ho, C.-H., Yan, M. M.-H., and Lee, K.-T. (1998). Parameterizations for cloud overlapping and shortwave single-scattering properties for use in general circulation and cloud ensemble models. Journal of Climate, 11(2), 202–214. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0202:PFCOAS>2.0.CO;2

Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Tanré, D., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., … Smirnov, A. (1998). AERONET—A Federated Instrument Network and Data Archive for Aerosol Characterization. Remote Sensing of Environment, 66(1). doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5

Kaufman, Y. J., Justice, C. O., Flynn, L. P., Kendall, J. D., Prins, E. M., Giglio, L., … Setzer, A. W. (1998). Potential global fire monitoring from EOS-MODIS. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(D24), 32215–32238. doi:10.1029/98JD01644

Landsea, C. W., Bell, G. D., Gray, W. M., and Goldenberg, S. B. (1998). The Extremely Active 1995 Atlantic Hurricane Season: Environmental Conditions and Verification of Seasonal Forecasts. Monthly Weather Review, 126(5), 1174–1193. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<1174:TEAAHS>2.0.CO;2

Miller, R. L., and Tegen, I. (1998). Climate Response to Soil Dust Aerosols. Journal of Climate, 11(12), 3247–3267. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3247:CRTSDA>2.0.CO;2

Moron, V., and Ward, M. N. (1998). ENSO teleconnections with climate variability in the European and African sectors. Weather, 53(9), 287–295. doi:10.1002/j.1477-8696.1998.tb06403.x

Nicholson, S. E., Tucker, C. J., and Ba, M. B. (1998). Desertification, Drought, and Surface Vegetation: An Example from the West African Sahel. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(5), 815–829. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0815:DDASVA>2.0.CO;2

Torrence, C., and Compo, G. P. (1998). A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(1), 61–78. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0061:APGTWA>2.0.CO;2

Torrence, C., and Webster, P. J. (1998). The annual cycle of persistence in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 124(550), 1985–2004. doi:10.1002/qj.49712455010

Townsend, P. A., and Walsh, S. J. (1998). Modeling floodplain inundation using an integrated GIS with radar and optical remote sensing. Geomorphology, 21(3–4), 295–312. doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(97)00069-X

Ward, M. N. (1998). Diagnosis and Short-Lead Time Prediction of Summer Rainfall in Tropical North Africa at Interannual and Multidecadal Timescales. Journal of Climate, 11(12), 3167–3191. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3167:DASLTP>2.0.CO;2

Ehrlich, D., Lambin, E. F., and Malingreau, J. (1997). Biomass burning and broad-scale land-cover changes in Western Africa. Remote Sensing of Environment, 61(2), 201–209. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(97)00002-3

Janicot, S. (1997). Impact of warm ENSO events on atmospheric circulation and convection over the tropical Atlantic and West Africa. Annales Geophysicae, 15, 471–475. doi:10.1007/s00585-997-0471-x

Mlawer, E. J., Taubman, S. J., Brown, P. D., Iacono, M. J., and Clough, S. A. (1997). Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(D14), 16663–16682. doi:10.1029/97JD00237

Wanner, W., Strahler, A. H., Hu, B., Lewis, P., Muller, J. P., Li, X., … Barnsley, M. J. (1997). Global retrieval of bidirectional reflectance and albedo over land from EOS MODIS and MISR data: Theory and algorithm. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102(D14), 17143–17161. doi:10.1029/96JD03295

Biggin, D. S., and Blyth, K. (1996). A Comparison of ERS-1 Satellite Radar and Aerial Photography for River Flood Mapping. Water and Environment Journal, 10(1), 59–64. doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.1996.tb00009.x

Eltahir, E. A. B. (1996). El Niño and the Natural Variability in the Flow of the Nile River. Water Resources Research, 32(1), 131–137. doi:10.1029/95WR02968

Isiorho, S. A., Matisoff, G., and Wehn, K. S. (1996). Seepage Relationship Between Lake Chad and the Chad Aquifers. Groundwater, 34(5), 819–826. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1996.tb02076.x

Le Houérou, H. N. (1996). Climate change, drought and desertification. Journal of Arid Environments, 34(2), 133–185. doi:10.1006/jare.1996.0099

Liousse, C., Penner, J. E., Chuang, C., Walton, J. J., Eddleman, H., and Cachier, H. (1996). A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 101(D14), 19411–19432. doi:10.1029/95JD03426

Scholes, R. J., Kendall, J., and Justice, C. O. (1996). The quantity of biomass burned in southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(D19), 23667. doi:10.1029/96JD01623

Cahoon, D. R. J., Stocks, B. J., Levine, J. S., Cofer, W. R. I., and Pierson, J. M. (1994). Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 99(D9), 18627–18638. doi:10.1029/94JD01024

Hao, W. M., and Liu, M.-H. (1994). Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8(4), 495–503. doi:10.1029/94GB02086

Lare, A. R., and Nicholson, S. E. (1994). Contrasting conditions of surface water balance in wet years and dry years as a possible land surface-atmosphere feedback mechanism in the West African Sahel. Journal of Climate, 7(5), 653–668. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0653:CCOSWB>2.0.CO;2

Chang, E. K. M. (1993). Downstream Development of Baroclinic Waves As Inferred from Regression Analysis. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 50(13), 2038–2053. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2038:DDOBWA>2.0.CO;2

Xue, Y., and Shukla, J. (1993). The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate. Part 1: Desertification. Journal of Climate, 6(12), 2232–2245. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<2232:TIOLSP>2.0.CO;2

Cahoon, D. R. J., Stocks, B. J., Levine, J. S., Cofer, W. R. I., and O’Neill, K. P. (1992). Seasonal distribution of African savanna fires. Nature, 356, 133–135. doi:10.1038/359812a0

Crutzen, P. J., and Andreae, M. O. (1990). Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles. Science, 250(4988), 1669–1678. doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1669

Legates, D. R., and Willmott, C. J. (1990). Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 41(1–2), 11–21. doi:10.1007/BF00866198

Legates, D. R., and Willmott, C. J. (1990). Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation. International Journal of Climatology, 10(2), 111–127. doi:10.1002/joc.3370100202

Lopes, A., Nezry, E., Touzi, R., and Laur, H. (1990). Maximum A Posteriori Speckle Filtering and First Order Texture Models in SAR Images. In 10th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (pp. 2409–2412). IEEE. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.1990.689026

Stockwell, W. R., Middleton, P., Chang, J. S., and Tang, X. (1990). The second generation regional acid deposition model chemical mechanism for regional air quality modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95(D10), 16343–16367. doi:10.1029/JD095iD10p16343

Chen, T.-C., and van Loon, H. (1987). Interannual Variation of the Tropical Easterly Jet. Monthly Weather Review, 115(8), 1739–1759. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1739:IVOTTE>2.0.CO;2

Ropelewski, C. F., and Halpert, M. S. (1987). Global and Regional Scale Precipitation Patterns Associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review, 115(8), 1606–1626. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2

Wolter, K. (1987). The Southern Oscillation in Surface Circulation and Climate over the Tropical Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans as Captured by Cluster Analysis. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26(4), 540–558. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1987)026<0540:TSOISC>2.0.CO;2

Dozier, J. (1981). A method for satellite identification of surface temperature fields of subpixel resolution. Remote Sensing of Environment, 11, 221–229. doi:10.1016/0034-4257(81)90021-3

Prospero, J. M., and Carlson, T. N. (1981). Saharan air outbreaks over the tropical North Atlantic. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 119(3), 677–691. doi:10.1007/BF00878167

Seiler, W., and Crutzen, P. J. (1980). Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass burning. Climatic Change, 2(3), 207–247. doi:10.1007/BF00137988

Anderson, J. R., Hardy, E. E., Roach, J. T., and Witmer, R. E. (1976). A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data.

Charney, J. G. (1975). Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 101(428), 193–202. doi:10.1002/qj.49710142802

Burpee, R. W. (1974). Characteristics of North African Easterly Waves During the Summers of 1968 and 1969. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 31(6), 1556–1570. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<1556:CONAEW>2.0.CO;2

Burpee, R. W. (1972). The Origin and Structure of Easterly Waves in the Lower Troposphere of North Africa. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 29(1), 77–90. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0077:TOASOE>2.0.CO;2

Bjerknes, J. (1969). Atmospheric Teleconnections From the Equatorial Pacific. Monthly Weather Review, 97(3), 163–172. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0163:ATFTEP>2.3.CO;2

Frank, N. L. (1969). The inverted V’’cloud pattern—An easterly wave. Monthly Weather Review, 97(2), 130–140. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1969)097<0130:TVCPEW>2.3.CO;2

Charney, J. G., and Stern, M. E. (1962). On the Stability of Internal Baroclinic Jets in a Rotating Atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 19(2), 159–172. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1962)019<0159:OTSOIB>2.0.CO;2