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Fire Energetics and Emissions Research

FEER Updates


01.Feb.2017 - Updated getMODFIREdata and getFEERdata scripts.

14.Dec.2016 - Biomass burning land cover product description uploaded.

10.Nov.2016 - Expanded and enhanced the Northern Sub-Saharan Africa Project homepage.

13.Oct.2016 - Global MODIS Fires Google Earth product restored and enhanced.

Interactions and Feedbacks between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

** Africa Explorer **

Welcome to this site devoted to the study of the interactions between biomass burning and climate in Africa. The following snippets highlight our project funded under two successive NASA Interdisciplinary Research in Earth Science (IDS) proposals, beginning in 2009. The IDS-2013 successor project aims to reinforce and amplify the preceding IDS-2009 interdisciplinary study by incorporating the potential impacts of similar environmental phenomena and processes in the adjoining Northern and Southern Africa as well as the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on the water cycle dynamics in the NSSA region. Our team is well constituted, with scientists from different but complementary areas of expertise, including biomass burning and surface characterization, aerosols and atmospheric modeling, cloud processes and precipitation, surface hydrology, ground-water hydrology, and climate modeling. Most of these scientists have substantial experience working in the NSSA region. This research is strategically designed to encompass in depth and breadth the different disciplines relevant to the subject matter, with dynamic linkages throughout the research period, in order to obtain a comprehensive result that relates the scientific outcome to societal impacts, as well as future projections of these. This is needed to formulate mitigation options to avert the looming regional/global catastrophic outcome of a potentially irreversible "takeover" of that region by drought/desertification, exemplified by the drying up of Lake Chad and other water resources. Detailed description / List of team members

The Issue

The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the genesis of global atmospheric circulation and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes and the distribution of the Saharan dust to other parts of the world. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation.

Africa's Disappearing Lake Chad : Image of the Day

Africa's Disappearing Lake Chad : Image of the Day

climate change, global climate change, global warming, natural hazards, Earth, environment, remote sensing, atmosphere, land processes, oceans, volcanoes, land cover, Earth science data, NASA, environmental processes, Blue Marble, global maps Read more

Dust and Smoke near Lake Chad : Natural Hazards

Dust and Smoke near Lake Chad : Natural Hazards

Dust clogged the air across Western Africa. Read more

Fires in Central Africa : Natural Hazards

Fires in Central Africa : Natural Hazards

Widespread agricultural fires throughout the month of June sent plumes of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. Read more

2005 Fire Patterns Across Africa : Image of the Day

2005 Fire Patterns Across Africa : Image of the Day

climate change, global climate change, global warming, natural hazards, Earth, environment, remote sensing, atmosphere, land processes, oceans, volcanoes, land cover, Earth science data, NASA, environmental processes, Blue Marble, global maps Read more

Fires in West Africa : Natural Hazards

Fires in West Africa : Natural Hazards

This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite on March 17, 2009, shows scores of fires burning in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Read more

The Research

We are in the midst of an interdisciplinary research effort, which seeks to address the effects of the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the NSSA region on the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. The proposal brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from different but complimentary fields of expertise that has helped to unravel the coupling of these phenomena and associated processes and outcomes. Through this effort we are making gains to understand the impacts of recent (2000-present) biomass-burning by monitoring and assessing multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water cycle processes through remote sensing and modeling approaches that integrate research, systems engineering, and applications expertise, in order to achieve concrete results for societal benefits and climate assessments.

African Environmental Processes and Water-Cycle Dynamics - IOPscience

African Environmental Processes and Water-Cycle Dynamics - IOPscience

This Environmental Research Letters focus issue invites interdisciplinary studies that can help unravel the links between African environmental processes such as land-use activities, biomass burning, and atmospheric composition and water-cycle-related phenomena such as rainfall, soil moisture, and groundwater dynamics. Read more

NASA ESD Highlight: New Biomass Burning Smoke Emissions Dataset Fills Gap between Previous Estimations and Expected Values

NASA ESD Highlight: New Biomass Burning Smoke Emissions Dataset Fills Gap between Previous Estimations and Expected Values

Fires burn extensively in most vegetated parts of the world. Smoke from biomass burning contributes a major portion of the annual carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Thus, an accurate smoke emissions inventory is imperative to correctly understand the impacts of biomass burning on the global climate system and regional environmental dynamics. A major effort to create a new emissions dataset for this very purpose has resulted in the FEER (Fire Energetics and Emissions Research) emissions product: a globally gridded product that is derived from satellite measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in conjunction with model-assimilated wind fields. Read more

NASA ESD Highlight: Surface Albedo Changes from Wildfires in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

NASA ESD Highlight: Surface Albedo Changes from Wildfires in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

The study demonstrates simple methods for characterizing and deriving the trajectories of post-fire albedo dynamics from satellite data that is consistent and widely available. Results show that savannas accounted for >86% of the total MODIS fire count between 2003 and 2011 in Northern sub-Saharan Africa, that only a small fraction of the savanna pixels (<=10%) burn in two successive years, and that about 47% had any fire recurrence in 9 years. Read more

A Band of Fire in Sub-Saharan Africa  : Image of the Day

A Band of Fire in Sub-Saharan Africa : Image of the Day

Every year, a massive band of manmade fire emerges in satellite imagery of northern Sub-Saharan Africa in November. Read more

NASA ESD Highlight: Hydrological Impacts from Fire-Induced Surface Albedo Darkening in Africa

NASA ESD Highlight: Hydrological Impacts from Fire-Induced Surface Albedo Darkening in Africa

Large scale events such as fires need to be better represented in most land surface models as they have a direct impact on the hydrological fluxes of a region. Here we have investigated how the Catchment Land Surface Model simulates hydrological and energy fluxes based on estimated change of surface albedo due to fires over different land cover types. Burning of biomass as observed by satellites causes a change in albedo that leads to a 1-3% decrease in soil moisture and up to a 1degC increase in surface temperature. Read more

A Tale of Fire and Water: A NASA Scientist's Quest to Understand the Rain in Africa : Feature Articles

A Tale of Fire and Water: A NASA Scientist's Quest to Understand the Rain in Africa : Feature Articles

Charles Ichoku wants to understand whether fires in sub-Saharan Africa are changing the timing and duration of rains. The viability of Lake Chad may depend on what his team finds. Read more

NASA ESD Highlight: Fire-induced land conversion to cropland is increasing in middle Africa

NASA ESD Highlight: Fire-induced land conversion to cropland is increasing in middle Africa

NSSA accounts for 20%–25% of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning. Given such overwhelming occurrence of biomass burning in this region and its inherent potential to affect vegetation changes, land degradation, deforestation, surface albedo, aerosol emissions, and surface evapotranspiration, it is reasonable to hypothesize that biomass burning, directly or indirectly, exerts significant impact on NSSA’s environmental dynamics and water cycle across different spatial and temporal scales. Widespread burning that peaked in 2006 across the northern part of sub-Saharan Africa influences land-cover changes that result in a net conversion of 0.28%/year of the total land area to cropland, with the majority (0.18%/year) coming from savanna. Over the last decade, the trend is increasing from savanna, forest, and wetlands to cropland. Read more

Study Finds a Connection Between Wildfires and Drought

Study Finds a Connection Between Wildfires and Drought

For centuries drought has come and gone across northern sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, water shortages have been most severe in the Sahel—a band of semi-arid land situated just south of the Sahara Desert. Read more

Application and Outreach

This project has enabled us to not only maintain previous collaborations but to also establish new collaborations with several colleagues in the US, Europe, and Africa who have interest in related research in our study region. The collaborations were established both at the project level and at the level of individual co-investigators. Furthermore, various user organizations such as the World Bank, Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC), the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), and Nigerian Space Agency (NASRDA) were contacted and briefed during the course of this project, thereby engendering their interest in developing partnership with us to maximize the utilization of our results for societal benefit. There is a general support from these organizations to receive and evaluate our results or assist with collection of ancillary data, when applicable.

Interactive Meeting of Stakeholders on the Lake Chad Basin

Interactive Meeting of Stakeholders on the Lake Chad Basin

On June 25, 2012 our project team held an interactive meeting in Abuja, Nigeria with a wide range of stakeholders from various government and non-profit organizations working in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB). The meeting was hosted by the Directorate for Technical Cooperation in Africa (DTCA), an agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Nigeria. Drs. Charles Ichoku and Jimmy Adegoke represented our NASA IDS project team at the meeting. The key objectives of the interactive meeting were to: 1) Sensitize the Lake Chad Basin stakeholders on the research being undertaken by our NASA IDS team, 2) Determine how the needs and priorities of inhabitants of the LCB can constrain, inform or influence our ongoing study, and 3) Explore how NASA science and technology can best support the attainment of the development goals of the LCB. Thirty-two participants representing 15 agencies attended the one-day meeting.

Bilateral workshop between WASCAL and NASA held

Bilateral workshop between WASCAL and NASA held

A workshop was held to explore possible collaboration areas between the two international outfits, NASA and WASCAL. WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) is a large-scale research-focused Climate Service Centre working on enhancing the resilience of human and environmental systems to climate change and increased variability. Read more

COSPAR Capacity Building Workshop 2017: Interdisciplinary Remote Sensing, Modeling, and Validation of Environmental Processes

COSPAR Capacity Building Workshop 2017: Interdisciplinary Remote Sensing, Modeling, and Validation of Environmental Processes

The COSPAR Capacity Building (CB) Workshop on Interdisciplinary Remote Sensing, Modeling, and Validation of Environmental Processes is being held at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, Ghana from 12-23 June 2017. The workshop is bringing together an extensive suite of major international research programs/projects to transfer a large knowledge base to young professionals and graduate students in West Africa. Read more

Visualization and Tools

Numerous visualization and anlysis tools have been developed in connection with this research project, including maps, data visualization, interactive features, and forecasts.

Global MODIS Fires Tool

Global MODIS Fires Tool

Daily MODIS active fire detections from the MOD14/MYD14 product are made available within Google Earth. The fire icons will show important information about each fire when clicked; the whole dataset in plain text daily files is made available here.

Sub-Saharan Africa Fire Radiative Power Imagery

Sub-Saharan Africa Fire Radiative Power Imagery

A database of daily and monthly images showing fire strength (specifically, fire radiative power, or FRP) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is continually updated and maintained. The fire season in SSA is synonymous with the dry season, which generally extends from October/November through April/May for Northern SSA, and the inverse months for Southern SSA.

AfricaExplorer Tool

AfricaExplorer Tool

The AfricaExplorer tool was developed for the ability to quickly visualize our data products - both input products and derivative products. The imagery includes the past few days of data, and also the forecasted data for a few days into the future. The tool has the ability to plot time series charts for key cities around the continent.

Project Team


Ichoku, C., Ellison, L. T., Willmot, K. E., Matsui, T., Dezfuli, A. K., Gatebe, C. K., … Habib, S. (2016). Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 11(9), 95005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095005

Engelbrecht, F., Adegoke, J., Bopape, M.-J., Naidoo, M., Garland, R., Thatcher, M., … Gatebe, C. (2015). Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8), 85004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085004

Gatebe, C. K., Ichoku, C. M., Poudyal, R., Román, M. O., and Wilcox, E. (2014). Surface albedo darkening from wildfires in northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 9(6), 65003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/065003

Hosseinpour, F., and Wilcox, E. M. (2014). Aerosol interactions with African/Atlantic climate dynamics. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075004

Ichoku, C., and Ellison, L. (2014). Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(13), 6643–6667. doi:10.5194/acp-14-6643-2014

Long, S., Fatoyinbo, T. E., and Policelli, F. (2014). Flood extent mapping for Namibia using change detection and thresholding with SAR. Environmental Research Letters, 9(3), 35002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/035002

Okonkwo, C., and Demoz, B. (2014). Identifying anthropogenic “hotspots” and management of water resources in Lake Chad Basin using GIS. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(2–3), 135–149. doi:10.1080/19390459.2014.920581

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Gebremariam, S. (2014). Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/145893

Skaskevych, A. (2014). A Comparison Study of GRACE-Based Groundwater Modeling for Data-Rich and Data-Scarce Regions. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Zhang, F., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E. J., Yang, Z., Ge, C., … da Silva, A. (2014). Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075002

Babama’aji, R. A., and Lee, J. (2013). Land use/land cover classification of the vicinity of Lake Chad using NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat data. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(10), 4309–4317. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2825-x

Babama’aji, R. A. (2013). Impacts of Precipitation, Land Use Land Cover and Soil Type on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Onyeukwu, K. (2013). Characteristics of drought indices and rainfall in Lake Chad Basin. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(22), 7945–7961. doi:10.1080/01431161.2013.827813

Park, C., Lee, J., and Koo, M. H. (2013). Development of a fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model addressing vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics (VELAS). Journal of Hydrology, 493, 43–56. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.04.027

Yang, Z. (2013). Mesoscale Modeling and Satellite Observation of Transport and Mixing of Smoke and Dust Particles over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region. University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Yang, Z., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E., and Zeng, J. (2013). Mesoscale modeling and satellite observation of transport and mixing of smoke and dust particles over northern sub-Saharan African region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(21), 12139–12157. doi:10.1002/2013JD020644

Idowu, O. S. (2012). The role of land-atmosphere and aerosol interactions on meso-scale convective weather systems across West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Park, C. (2012). VELAS: A fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model with emphasis on vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Tobar, I. M. (2012). Geostatistical analysis of land use/land cover changes and population growth trends in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria. University of Missouri - Kansas City.

Aligeti, N. (2011). Satellite-based assessment of invasive vegetation in Lake Chad Basin, West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City.


Gatebe, C. K., and King, M. D. (2016). Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications. Remote Sensing of Environment, 179, 131–148. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029

Giglio, L., Schroeder, W., and Justice, C. O. (2016). The collection 6 MODIS active fire detection algorithm and fire products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 178, 31–41. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.054

Good, P., Harper, A., Meesters, A., Robertson, E., and Betts, R. (2016). Are strong fire–vegetation feedbacks needed to explain the spatial distribution of tropical tree cover? Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(1), 16–25. doi:10.1111/geb.12380

Roy, D. P., and Kumar, S. S. (2016). Multi-year MODIS active fire type classification over the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome. International Journal of Digital Earth, 1–31. doi:10.1080/17538947.2016.1208686

Pereira, J. M. C., Oom, D., Pereira, P., Turkman, A. A., and Turkman, K. F. (2015). Religious Affiliation Modulates Weekly Cycles of Cropland Burning in Sub-Saharan Africa. (P. Anglewicz, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0139189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139189

Tosca, M. G., Diner, D. J., Garay, M. J., and Kalashnikova, O. V. (2015). Human-caused fires limit convection in tropical Africa: First temporal observations and attribution. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(15), 6492–6501. doi:10.1002/2015GL065063

Andela, N., and van der Werf, G. R. (2014). Recent trends in African fires driven by cropland expansion and El Niño to La Niña transition. Nature Climate Change, 4(9), 791–795. doi:10.1038/nclimate2313

Estes, L. D., Chaney, N. W., Herrera-Estrada, J., Sheffield, J., Caylor, K. K., and Wood, E. F. (2014). Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979–2010. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 75005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075005

Ge, C., Wang, J., and Reid, J. S. (2014). Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian maritime continent: Coupling of smoke direct radiative effect below and above the low-level clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 159–174. doi:10.5194/acp-14-159-2014

Liousse, C., Assamoi, E., Criqui, P., Granier, C., and Rosset, R. (2014). Explosive growth in African combustion emissions from 2005 to 2030. Environmental Research Letters, 9(3), 35003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/035003

Livingston, J. M., Redemann, J., Shinozuka, Y., Johnson, R., Russell, P. B., Zhang, Q., … Ramachandran, S. (2014). Comparison of MODIS 3 km and 10 km resolution aerosol optical depth retrievals over land with airborne sunphotometer measurements during ARCTAS summer 2008. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 2015–2038. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2015-2014

Schroeder, W., Ellicott, E., Ichoku, C., Ellison, L., Dickinson, M. B., Ottmar, R. D., … Kremens, R. (2014). Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 719–730. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.10.010

Tosca, M. G., Diner, D. J., Garay, M. J., and Kalashnikova, O. V. (2014). Observational evidence of fire-driven reduction of cloud fraction in tropical Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119. doi:10.1002/2014JD021759

Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., … Zender, C. S. (2013). Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(11), 5380–5552. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171

Carslaw, K. S., Lee, L. A., Reddington, C. L., Pringle, K. J., Rap, A., Forster, P. M., … Pierce, J. R. (2013). Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing. Nature, 503, 67–71. doi:10.1038/nature12674

Diaz, M., and Aiyyer, A. (2013). Energy Dispersion in African Easterly Waves. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(1), 130–145. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-019.1

Giglio, L. (2013). MODIS Collection 5 Active Fire Product User’s Guide (2.5.).

Nelson, D., Garay, M., Kahn, R., and Dunst, B. (2013). Stereoscopic Height and Wind Retrievals for Aerosol Plumes with the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX). Remote Sensing, 5(9), 4593–4628. doi:10.3390/rs5094593

Smith, M. D., van Wilgen, B. W., Burns, C. E., Govender, N., Potgieter, A. L. F., Andelman, S., … Trollope, W. S. W. (2013). Long-term effects of fire frequency and season on herbaceous vegetation in savannas of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Plant Ecology, 6(1), 71–83. doi:10.1093/jpe/rts014

Spyrou, C., Kallos, G., Mitsakou, C., Athanasiadis, P., Kalogeri, C., and Iacono, M. J. (2013). Modeling the radiative effects of desert dust on weather and regional climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 5489–5504. doi:10.5194/acp-13-5489-2013

Stier, P., Schutgens, N. A. J., Bellouin, N., Bian, H., Boucher, O., Chin, M., … Zhou, C. (2013). Host model uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed intercomparison study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 3245–3270. doi:10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013

Wang, J., Ge, C., Yang, Z., Hyer, E. J., Reid, J. S., Chew, B. N., … Zhang, M. (2013). Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography. Atmospheric Research, 122, 486–503. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.05.009

Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Bréon, F. M., Ciais, P., Davis, S., Erickson, D., … Treanton, K. (2012). A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences, 9, 1845–1871. doi:10.5194/bg-9-1845-2012

Beilfuss, R. (2012). A Risky Climate for Southern African Hydro: Assessing hydrological risks and consequences for Zambezi River Basin dams. Berkeley, CA, USA: International Rivers.

Diehl, T., Heil, A., Chin, M., Pan, X., Streets, D., Schultz, M., and Kinne, S. (2012). Anthropogenic, biomass burning, and volcanic emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and SO2 from 1980 to 2010 for hindcast model experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 12, 24895–24954. doi:10.5194/acpd-12-24895-2012

Fu, J. S., Hsu, N. C., Gao, Y., Huang, K., Li, C., Lin, N. H., and Tsay, S. C. (2012). Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: A regional chemical transport modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 3837–3855. doi:10.5194/acp-12-3837-2012

Hsu, N. C., Gautam, R., Sayer, A. M., Bettenhausen, C., Li, C., Jeong, M. J., … Holben, B. N. (2012). Global and regional trends of aerosol optical depth over land and ocean using SeaWiFS measurements from 1997 to 2010. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 8037–8053. doi:10.5194/acp-12-8037-2012

Hyer, E., Wang, J., and Arellano, A. (2012). Biomass Burning: Observations, Modeling, and Data Assimilation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(1), ES10-ES14. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00064.1

Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., and Chin, M. (2012). Satellite contributions to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning for climate modeling. Atmospheric Research, 111, 1–28. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.03.007

Kaiser, J. W., Heil, A., Andreae, M. O., Benedetti, A., Chubarova, N., Jones, L., … van der Werf, G. R. (2012). Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power. Biogeosciences, 9(1), 527–554. doi:10.5194/bg-9-527-2012

Lemoalle, J., Bader, J. C., Leblanc, M., and Sedick, A. (2012). Recent changes in Lake Chad: Observations, simulations and management options (1973-2011). Global and Planetary Change, 80–81, 247–254. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.07.004

Losada, T., Rodriguez-Fonseca, B., Mohino, E., Bader, J., Janicot, S., and Mechoso, C. R. (2012). Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A non-stationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(12). doi:10.1029/2012GL052423

Ma, P.-L., Zhang, K., Shi, J. J., Matsui, T., and Arking, A. (2012). Direct radiative effect of mineral dust on the development of African easterly waves in late summer, 2003-07. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(12), 2090–2104. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0215.1

Mason, D. C., Davenport, I. J., Neal, J. C., Schumann, G. J.-P., and Bates, P. D. (2012). Near Real-Time Flood Detection in Urban and Rural Areas Using High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50(8), 3041–3052. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2178030

Peterson, D. (2012). Retrieval of Sub-Pixel-Based Fire Intensity and its Application for Characterizing Smoke Injection Heights and Fire Weather in North America. University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

Solmon, F., Elguindi, N., and Mallet, M. (2012). Radiative and climatic effects of dust over West Africa, as simulated by a regional climate model. Climate Research, 52, 97–113. doi:10.3354/cr01039

Tyner, B., and Aiyyer, A. (2012). Evolution of African Easterly Waves in Potential Vorticity Fields. Monthly Weather Review, 140(11), 3634–3652. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00170.1

Val Martin, M., Kahn, R. a., Logan, J. a., Paugam, R., Wooster, M., and Ichoku, C. (2012). Space-based observational constraints for 1-D fire smoke plume-rise models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(D22), D22204. doi:10.1029/2012JD018370

Wilcox, E. M. (2012). Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 139–149. doi:10.5194/acp-12-139-2012

Zhang, X., Kondragunta, S., Ram, J., Schmidt, C., and Huang, H.-C. (2012). Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(D14), D14201. doi:10.1029/2012JD017459

Zuluaga, M. D., Webster, P. J., and Hoyos, C. D. (2012). Variability of aerosols in the tropical Atlantic Ocean relative to African Easterly Waves and their relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D16). doi:10.1029/2011JD017181

Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., … Wennberg, P. O. (2011). Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(9), 4039–4072. doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011

Fontaine, B., Roucou, P., Gaetani, M., and Marteau, R. (2011). Recent changes in precipitation, ITCZ convection and northern tropical circulation over North Africa (1979-2007). International Journal of Climatology, 31(5), 633–648. doi:10.1002/joc.2108

Gao, H., Bohn, T. J., Podest, E., McDonald, K. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P. (2011). On the causes of the shrinking of Lake Chad. Environmental Research Letters, 6(3). doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034021

Leblanc, M., Lemoalle, J., Bader, J.-C., Tweed, S., and Mofor, L. (2011). Thermal remote sensing of water under flooded vegetation: New observations of inundation patterns for the “Small” Lake Chad. Journal of Hydrology, 404(1–2), 87–98. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.04.023

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