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National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Goddard Space Flight Center


Fire Energetics and Emissions Research

FEER Updates


20.Feb.2019 - VIIRS active fire data available as VNPFIRE product.

12.Feb.2019 - FEERv1.0 Emissions processing stream fixed.

08.Feb.2019 - MODFIRE processing stream fixed.

31.Jul.2018 - Suomi-NPP VIIRS fire data added to Africa Explorer.



Iguchi, T., Matsui, T., Tao, Z., Kim, D., Ichoku, C. M., Ellison, L., and Wang, J. (2018). NU-WRF Aerosol Transport Simulation over West Africa: Effects of Biomass Burning on Smoke Aerosol Distribution. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57(7), 1551–1573. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0278.1

Policelli, F., Hubbard, A., Jung, H., Zaitchik, B., and Ichoku, C. (2018). Lake Chad Total Surface Water Area as Derived from Land Surface Temperature and Radar Remote Sensing Data. Remote Sensing, 10(2), 252. doi:10.3390/rs10020252

Wang, J., Yue, Y., Wang, Y., Ichoku, C., Ellison, L., and Zeng, J. (2018). Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(1), 507–528. doi:10.1002/2017JD026840


Dezfuli, A. (2017). Climate of Western and Central Equatorial Africa. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science, 1(November), 1–46. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228620.013.511

Dezfuli, A. K., Ichoku, C. M., Huffman, G. J., Mohr, K. I., Selker, J. S., van de Giesen, N., … Annor, F. O. (2017). Validation of IMERG Precipitation in Africa. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18(10), 2817–2825. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-17-0139.1


Dickinson, M. B., Hudak, A. T., Zajkowski, T., Loudermilk, E. L., Schroeder, W., Ellison, L., … Mauceri, J. (2016). Measuring radiant emissions from entire prescribed fires with ground, airborne and satellite sensors – RxCADRE 2012, Supplementary material. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 25(1). doi:10.1071/WF15090_AC

Ichoku, C., and Adegoke, J. (2016). Synthesis and review: African environmental processes and water-cycle dynamics. Environmental Research Letters, 11(12), 120206. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/120206

Ichoku, C., Ellison, L. T., Willmot, K. E., Matsui, T., Dezfuli, A. K., Gatebe, C. K., … Habib, S. (2016). Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 11(9), 095005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095005

Polivka, T. N., Wang, J., Ellison, L. T., Hyer, E. J., and Ichoku, C. M. (2016). Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection With the VIIRS Day–Night Band. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 54(9), 5503–5519. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2016.2566665


Ellison, L., and Ichoku, C. (2015). FEER Coefficient of Emission (Ce) Product User Manual (User Guides). (L. Ellison, Ed.) (1.0rA.). Retrieved from

Engelbrecht, F., Adegoke, J., Bopape, M.-J., Naidoo, M., Garland, R., Thatcher, M., … Gatebe, C. (2015). Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation. Environmental Research Letters, 10(8), 085004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085004

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., Sakai, R., Ichoku, C., Anarado, C., Adegoke, J., … Abdullahi, S. I. (2015). Combined effect of El Niño southern oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation on Lake Chad level variability. (N. Krakauer, Ed.)Cogent Geoscience, 1(1117829). doi:10.1080/23312041.2015.1117829


Gatebe, C. K., Ichoku, C. M., Poudyal, R., Román, M. O., and Wilcox, E. (2014). Surface albedo darkening from wildfires in northern sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 9(6), 065003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/065003

Hosseinpour, F., and Wilcox, E. M. (2014). Aerosol interactions with African/Atlantic climate dynamics. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 075004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075004

Ichoku, C., and Ellison, L. (2014). Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(13), 6643–6667. doi:10.5194/acp-14-6643-2014

Long, S., Fatoyinbo, T. E., and Policelli, F. (2014). Flood extent mapping for Namibia using change detection and thresholding with SAR. Environmental Research Letters, 9(3), 035002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/035002

Okonkwo, C., and Demoz, B. (2014). Identifying anthropogenic ‘hotspots’ and management of water resources in Lake Chad Basin using GIS. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(2–3), 135–149. doi:10.1080/19390459.2014.920581

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Gebremariam, S. (2014). Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/145893

Schroeder, W., Ellicott, E., Ichoku, C., Ellison, L., Dickinson, M. B., Ottmar, R. D., … Kremens, R. (2014). Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 719–730. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.10.010

Skaskevych, A. (2014). A Comparison Study of GRACE-Based Groundwater Modeling for Data-Rich and Data-Scarce Regions. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from

Zhang, F., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E. J., Yang, Z., Ge, C., … da Silva, A. (2014). Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region. Environmental Research Letters, 9(7), 075002. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/075002


Babama’aji, R. A., and Lee, J. (2013). Land use/land cover classification of the vicinity of Lake Chad using NigeriaSat-1 and Landsat data. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(10), 4309–4317. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2825-x

Babama’aji, R. A. (2013). Impacts of Precipitation, Land Use Land Cover and Soil Type on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from

Ellison, L., and Ichoku, C. (2013). FEER Coefficient of Emission (Ce) Product User Manual (User Guide). (L. Ellison and C. Ichoku, Eds.) (1.0.). Retrieved from

Okonkwo, C., Demoz, B., and Onyeukwu, K. (2013). Characteristics of drought indices and rainfall in Lake Chad Basin. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(22), 7945–7961. doi:10.1080/01431161.2013.827813

Park, C., Lee, J., and Koo, M. H. (2013). Development of a fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model addressing vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics (VELAS). Journal of Hydrology, 493, 43–56. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.04.027

Peterson, D., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E., and Ambrosia, V. (2013). A sub-pixel-based calculation of fire radiative power from MODIS observations: 1. Algorithm development and initial assessment. Remote Sensing of Environment, 129, 262–279. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.10.036

Yang, Z. (2013). Mesoscale Modeling and Satellite Observation of Transport and Mixing of Smoke and Dust Particles over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Retrieved from

Yang, Z., Wang, J., Ichoku, C., Hyer, E., and Zeng, J. (2013). Mesoscale modeling and satellite observation of transport and mixing of smoke and dust particles over northern sub-Saharan African region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(21), 12139–12157. doi:10.1002/2013JD020644


Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., and Chin, M. (2012). Satellite contributions to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning for climate modeling. Atmospheric Research, 111, 1–28. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.03.007

Idowu, O. S. (2012). The role of land-atmosphere and aerosol interactions on meso-scale convective weather systems across West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from

Park, C. (2012). VELAS: A fully-distributed daily hydrologic feedback model with emphasis on vegetation, land cover, and soil water dynamics. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from

Tobar, I. M. (2012). Geostatistical analysis of land use/land cover changes and population growth trends in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from


Aligeti, N. (2011). Satellite-based assessment of invasive vegetation in Lake Chad Basin, West Africa. University of Missouri - Kansas City. Retrieved from


Henderson, S. B., Ichoku, C., Burkholder, B. J., Brauer, M., and Jackson, P. L. (2010). The validity and utility of MODIS data for simple estimation of area burned and aerosols emitted by wildfire events. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 19(7), 844. doi:10.1071/WF09027


Freeborn, P. H., Wooster, M. J., Hao, W. M., Ryan, C. a., Nordgren, B. L., Baker, S. P., and Ichoku, C. (2008). Relationships between energy release, fuel mass loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratory biomass fires. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(D1), D01301. doi:10.1029/2007JD008679

Ichoku, C., Giglio, L., Wooster, M. J., and Remer, L. A. (2008). Global characterization of biomass-burning patterns using satellite measurements of fire radiative energy. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(6), 2950–2962. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.02.009

Ichoku, C., Martins, J. V., Kaufman, Y. J., Wooster, M. J., Freeborn, P. H., Hao, W. M., … Nordgren, B. L. (2008). Laboratory investigation of fire radiative energy and smoke aerosol emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(D14), D14S09. doi:10.1029/2007JD009659

Jordan, N. S., Ichoku, C., and Hoff, R. M. (2008). Estimating smoke emissions over the US Southern Great Plains using MODIS fire radiative power and aerosol observations. Atmospheric Environment, 42(9), 2007–2022. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.023


Ichoku, C., and Kaufman, Y. J. (2005). A method to derive smoke emission rates from MODIS fire radiative energy measurements. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43(11), 2636–2649. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.857328


Ichoku, C., Kaufman, Y. J., and Habib, S. (2004). Application of MODIS-derived active fire radiative energy to fire disaster and smoke pollution monitoring. In IEEE International IEEE International IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2004. IGARSS ’04. Proceedings. 2004 (Vol. 2, pp. 1113–1115). IEEE. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2004.1368608


Ichoku, C., Kaufman, Y. J., Giglio, L., Li, Z., Fraser, R. H., Jin, J.-Z., and Park, W. M. (2003). Comparative analysis of daytime fire detection algorithms using AVHRR data for the 1995 fire season in Canada: Perspective for MODIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(8), 1669–1690. doi:10.1080/01431160210144697

Kaufman, Y. J., Ichoku, C., Giglio, L., Korontzi, S., Chu, D. a., Hao, W. M., … Justice, C. O. (2003). Fire and smoke observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS instrument--products, validation, and operational use. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(8), 1765–1781. doi:10.1080/01431160210144741